A History of Jazz

 

The Birth of Bebop Jazz

Rather than involving the large number of musicians typically associated with big band jazz, early bebop jazz entailed a small group of musicians, who thrived on creating a more intimate style of music. Emerging on the scene in the 1940s, it was a refreshing contrast to its showy, glamorous predecessor. Less band members meant more frequent and longer solo opportunities, which were a welcomed transition for many musicians.

King of Bebop Trumpeters Dizzy Gillespie Playing "Cool" Jazz Tune During Jam Session

There is no defining moment that gives insight as to when bebop jazz was born. There were several unrelated events that resulted in its development. In the early 1940s, bebop surfaced in St. Louis, New York and Kansas City. Dizzy Gillespie, Thelonious Monk and Charlie Parker are the recognized musical geniuses who refined the complex genre of jazz and lay the standard for future bebop musicians.

What is Bebop Jazz?
Bebop jazz was initially characterized by significantly more complex chord progressions and melodies with a strong concentration on the rhythm section. Although the irregular and unpredictable lengths of solos made the music less suitable for dancing, it was definitely entertaining. Jazz enthusiasts just sat back and listened to the music.

This type of jazz is depicted by its improvisations which were primarily composed of 8-note and 16th-note figures, creating many jumpy twists in the music. There are numerous abrupt melody changes and paused intervals between notes. Rather than simply embellishing a melody, bebop jazz musicians used chord progressions for the basis of their improvisation.

Changing the chords from an already existing piece and replacing them with a new melody was a method made popular by Charlie Parker. This maneuver enabled the rhythm section to produce what was considered an original tune.

Due to the small size of bebop bands, the only instruments traditionally utilized were the saxophone, piano, drums, trumpet and bass. On occasion, a guitar, trombone and/or violin were introduced.

Bebop vs Swing
Bebop jazz offered a drastically different approach to a very similar type of music - swing. The swing era was made up of straightforward compositions that bebop transitioned into asymmetrical phrasing, fast tempos and intricate melodies.

Many people who appreciated the lively and danceable swing music of the big bands felt that bebop was somewhat nervous and fragmented. However, the true jazz lovers and musicians were fond of bop, as they found it to be an exciting form of art that allowed for a substantial amount of self expression.

While big bands featured organized arrangements, bebop concentrated solely on unpredictable improvisations. A theme was typically introduced in the beginning of a number, and then the solos would take over; the whole number was held together by the rhythm section playing underlying harmonies.

Since the bebop jazz era, trends in improvisation have been a regular occurrence in many types of music. This genre has influenced free jazz, cool jazz, rock and roll and even hip hop. While bebop may not have been the most popular type of jazz, it initiated a fad that allows genuine artists to brazenly express themselves when inspiration strikes them.